Фразовые глаголы (Phrasal Verbs)

Фразовый  глагол  (Phrasal Verb) – представляет собой сочетание «простого»  глагола (состоящего из одного слова) и предлога (реже двух) или наречия, представляющее единую семантическую и синтаксическую единицу. 


Представляя собой идиому, фразовый  глагол  не может быть переведен дословно, хотя в редких случаях дословный перевод может помочь приблизительно понять суть выражения. Некоторые фразовые  глаголы имеют несколько значений, одни из которых идиоматичны, другие, напротив, могут быть легко переведены дословным переводом составляющих. Практически всегда у фразового  глагола имеется один или несколько синонимов среди обычных  глаголов. 


Стоит обратить внимание на то, что среди фразовых  глаголов есть делимые (separable) и неделимые (inseparable) конструкции. Первые могут разделяться другим словом, обычно дополнением или обстоятельством ( глагол + дополнение + предлог). Неделимые фразовые глаголы делить нельзя и любые дополнения, определения или другие слова должны идти либо перед, либо после них, как в случае с обычными  глаголами. 


Как и обычные, фразовые  глаголы могут быть переходными (могут иметь прямое дополнение в винительном падеже без предлога) и непереходными (no object, не могут иметь прямое дополнение в винительном падеже без предлога). 






abide by

 respect or obey. (the law, a decision, a rule)

 If you want to stay at this school, you mustabide by the rules.


account for

 explain, give a reason

 I hope you can account for the money you spent!


add up

 make sense, seem reasonable

 Her story just doesn't add up.


agree with

 have the same opinion as somebody else.

 I agree with you. I think she deserves the award too.


allow for

 take into consideration,
 include in a calculation

 You'd better leave early to allow for traffic jams.


answer back

 reply rudely

 Don't answer back your mother!


apply for

 make a formal request for something 
 (job, permit, loan etc.)

 He applied for the job he saw advertised in the newspaper.


avail (oneself) of

 take advantage of something (an opportunity)

 When the company is privatized, you shouldavail yourself of
 the opportunity and buy some shares.



back away

 move backwards, in fear or dislike

 When he saw the dog, he backed away.


back down

 withdraw,  concede defeat

 Local authorities backed down on their plans to demolish the building.


back up

1) give support or encouragement
2) make a copy of (file, program, etc.)

 1) If I tell the boss we've got too much work, will you back me up?
 2) It is recommended to back up all files in a secure location.


bank on

 base your hopes on someone/something

 Don't forget the date. I'm banking on your help.


beef up

 improve, make more substantial

 He beefed up his presentation with diagrams and statistics.


black out

 faint, lose consciousness

 When he fell off the horse he blacked out.


block off

 Separate using a barrier.

 The area was blocked off during the demonstration.


blow up

1) explode; 
2) be destroyed by an explosion

 1) The terrorists said the bomb would blow up at 9 o'clock.
 2) The car blew up but luckily there was nobody in it.


boil down to

 be summarized as

 The problem boils down to a lack of money.


boot up

 start a computer by loading an 
 operating system or program.

 Just give my a few minutes to boot up the computer.


break away

 escape from captivity

 A few horses broke away from the paddock.


break down

1) go out of order, cease to function
2) lose control of one's emotions

 1) John's car broke down so he had to take the bus.
 2) The parents broke down when they heard the bad news.


break into

 enter by force

 Burglars broke into the house around midnight.


break out

 start suddenly

 Rioting broke out as a result of the strike.


break out of

 escape from a place by force

 Three prisoners broke out of jail.


break up

 come to an end (marriage, relationship)

 After her marriage broke up, Emma went to live in London.


bring up

 raise (a child)

 She stopped working in order to bring upher children.


brush up on

 improve, refresh one's knowledge of something

 Mary had to brush up on her Spanish before going to South America.


bump into

 meet by accident or unexpectedly

 Pedro bumped into his English teacher at the supermarket.


burn out

1) stop (something) working
2) become exhausted from over-working

1) The fuse has burnt out.
2) Tom will burn himself out if he doesn't slow down.


butt in (on sthg)

 interrupt impolitely

 It's rude to butt in on a conversation like that!



call back

 return a phone call

 I'll call you back as soon as possible.


call off


 The meeting was called off because of the strike.


call on/upon sby

 formally invite or request

 I now call upon the President to address the assembly.


calm down

 become more relaxed, less angry or upset

 He was angry at first but he eventuallycalmed down.


carry on


 He carried on gardening in spite of the rain.


carry out

1) do something as specified
    (a plan, an order, a threat)
2) perform or conduct (test, experiment)

1) The plan was carried out to perfection.
2) Tests are carried out to determine the efficiency of a new drug.


carry over

 postpone until later

 As regards holidays, can you carry over any days from one year 
 to the next?


check in

 register at a hotel or airport

 For security reasons you have to check intwo hours before your flight.


check out

1) pay one's bill and leave (a hotel)
2) investigate

 1) Is Mr. Blair still at the hotel?  No, hechecked out this morning.
 2) I don't know if the address is still valid. I'llcheck it out.


clam up

 refuse to speak

 When the teacher arrived she clammed up.


clamp down on

 act strictly to prevent something

 The government has decided to clamp down on smoking in public places.


close down

 stop operating (company, restaurant, cinema).

 When the factory closed down, the employees lost their jobs.


come across

1) find by chance
2) appear, seem, make an impression

1) Julie came across some photographs of her grandparents in the attic.
2) The candidate came across as a dynamic person during the interview.


come forward

 present oneself

 The police have asked any witnesses tocome forward.


come up against

 be faced with or opposed by

 The project came up against a lot of criticism.


conk out

1) stop working
2) stop or fall asleep (from exhaustion)

 1) The car conked out on the motorway.
 2) He was so exhausted, he conked out in front of the TV.


count on

 rely or depend on (for help)

 I'm counting on the taxi driver to find the theatre.


cross out

 remove by drawing a line through

 In some exercises, you are asked to cross out the incorrect word.


cut down on

 reduce in number or size

 The doctor told him to cut down on cigarettes.


cut out

1) remove using scissors
2) stop doing something

 1) She cut out a picture in a magazine.
 2) I'm going to cut out eating between meals.



deal with

 handle, take care of  (problem, situation)

 The manager is good at dealing withdifficult customers.


die down

 calm down, become less strong

 When the applause died down, she started to sing.


do without

 manage without

 The shops are closed so we'll have to do without sugar.


drag on

 last longer than expected

 We expected a short speech but it dragged on and on!


draw up

 write (contract, agreement, document)

 An agreement was drawn up and signed by the two parties.


dress up

1) wear elegant clothes
2) disguise oneself

 1) Do people dress up to go to the opera in your country?
 2) Children love to dress up at Halloween.


drop in

 visit, usually on the way somewhere

 I sometimes drop in to see my grandparents on my way home from school.


drop off

1) deliver someone or something
2) fall asleep

 1) I'll drop you off at the bus stop if you like.
 2) Granddad often drops off in front of the TV.


drop out

 leave school without finishing

 She decided to go to art school thendropped out after the first term.






ease off

 reduce, become less severe or slow down 
 (pain, traffic, work)

 After Christmas the workload generallyeases off.


end in

 finish in a certain way; result in

 Their marriage ended in divorce.


end up

 finally reach a state, place or action

 If he continues his misconduct he'll end upin prison.


even out

1) eliminate differences of opinion.
2) become level or regular

 1) After a long discussion they managed toeven out their differences.
 2) The road was evened out  to make it safer.






fall through

 fail; doesn't happen

 Our planned boat trip fell through because of the storm.


figure out

 understand, find the answer

 I'm trying to figure out how to assemble the bookshelves.


fill out

 complete (a form/an application)

 Please fill out the enclosed form and return it as soon as possible.


find out

 discover or obtain information

 I'm going to call the cinema to find out what time the film starts.


focus on

 concentrate on something

 The advertising campaign will focus on the quality of the product.


figure out

 understand; find a solution

 We'll have to figure out a way to deliver the goods faster.






get along (with)

 be on good terms; work well with

 I get along (well) with my mother-in-law.


get at


 What exactly are you trying to get at?


get away


 The robbers got away in a black car.


get by

 manage to cope or to survive

 It's difficult to get by on a low salary.


get in


 How did the burglar get in?


get into (+noun)


 How did the burglar get into the house?


get off

1) leave (bus, train, plane)
2) remove

 1) You should get off the bus at Trafalgar Square.
 2) She can't get the stain off her sweater.


get on

 board (bus, train, plane)

 You can pay when you get on the bus.


get on with (something)

 continue to do; make progress

 Be quiet and get on with your homework.


get on (well) with (somebody)

 have a good relationship with

 I get on very well with my colleagues.


get out


 How did he get out?


get out of(+noun)


 How did he get out of the house?


get out of

 avoid doing something

 Some husbands manage to get out of doing any housework.


get over

 recover from (illness, disappointment)

 My grandmother had pneumonia but she got over it.


get rid of


 It's difficult to get rid of old habits.


get together

 meet each other

 Let's get together for lunch on day.


get up

 rise, leave bed

 I usually get up at 7 o'clock.


give up

 stop doing something

 Sarah gave up smoking 5 years ago.


go through


 Pete went through a lot of pain after the accident.


grow up

 spend one's childhood; develop; become an adult

 He grew up in a small village in the mountains.






hand in

 submit (report, homework)

 All application forms must be handed inbefore the end of the month.


hand out


 Samples will be handed out at the end of the demonstration.


hang out

 spend time in a particular place,
 or with a group of friends

 Where does he hang out these days?
 Who does he hang out with?


hang up

 end a phone conversation

 "Don't hang up. I haven't finished yet."


hit at

 aim a blow at

 He hit at the wasp with the newspaper.


hit back

 retaliate; reply to an attack

 When he was attacked by the others, the boy hit back.


hit on/upon

 find unexpectedly or by inspiration

 She hit upon an idea for her new collection.


hold on

 -grip tightly

- 'Hold on please.  I'll put you through to Mr. Brown."
- She held on to the railing as she crossed the bridge.


hurry up

 be quick, act speedily

 Hurry up! We'll miss the bus.






iron out

 resolve by discussion, eliminate differences

 The meeting tomorrow will be an opportunity to iron out difficulties.






join in


 She was too shy to join in the game.


join up

 -engage in, become a member of
- meet and unite with

- John was in the Army and  Tom joined upas soon as he left school.
- The two groups of tourists joined up at the hotel.


jot down

 take quick notes

 I jotted down the address while watching the programme on TV.






keep on

 continue doing something

 It told him to be quiet but he kept on making noise.


keep up with

 stay at the same level as someone or

 Bill walks so fast it's difficult to keep up with him.


kick off

 begin, start

 The football match kicked off at 3 o'clock.






leave out

 omit, not mention

 The child's name was left out of the report.


let down


 You promised to come to the party, so don't let me down!


look after

 take care of

 A babysitter looks after the children when they go out.


look ahead

 think of the future

 It's time to forget the past and look ahead.


look down on

 consider as inferior

 He tends to look down on anyone who is not successful.


look on

 be a spectator at an event

 Billy didn't take part in the fight.  He justlooked on.


look for

 try to find something

 Jane went to the shops to look for a pair of shoes.


look forward to

 await or anticipate with pleasure

 I look forward to seeing you soon.


look up to


 He was a wonderful teacher and many students looked up to him.






make fun of

 laugh at/ make jokes about

 The old lady dresses so strangely that the kids make fun of her.


make up

 invent (excuse, story)

 Some employees make up excuses when they arrive late for work.


mix up

 mistake one thing or person for another

 I don't know my neighbours' names yet.  I keep mixing them up.


move in

 arrive in a new home or office

 You've bought a new house? When are youmoving in?.


move out

 leave your home/office for another one.

 My neighbour is leaving.  He's moving out next Saturday.






nod off

 fall asleep

 My grandfather often nods off in front of the television.


note down

 write something

 I'll call the station and note down the departure times.






opt out

 leave a system or decide not to participate

 I enjoy tennis but I'm so busy I had to opt out of the tournament.


own up

 admit or confess something

 The boy owned up.  He said he kicked the ball through the window.






pass away


 The old lady passed away peacefully.


pass out


 She passed out when she heard the bad news.


pay back


 I'll lend you 20€ provided you pay me backbefore the end of the week.


put off

 postpone, arrange a later date

 The meeting was put off because of the strike.


put on

 turn on, switch on

 Could you put on the light please?


put out


 It took a long time to put out the fire.


put up

 accommodate, give somebody a bed

 We can put you up if you'd like to come for a week-end.


pick up

 collect somebody

 I'll pick you up at the station when you arrive.


point out

 indicate/direct attention to something

 She pointed out the mistake.






rely on

 count on, depend on, trust

 Don't worry.  You can rely on me.  I can keep a secret.


rule out


 The police ruled out political motives.


run away

 escape from a place or suddenly leave

 He ran away from home at the age of fourteen.


run into

 meet by accident or unexpectedly (also: bump into)

 Sophie ran into Maria at the shopping centre.


run out of

 have no more of something.

 What a nuisance!  We've run out of coffee.






set off

 start a journey;

 Early Saturday morning we set off for the ski slopes .


set up

 start a business

 She set up her own company 10 years ago.


shop around

 compare prices

 It's always wise to shop around before buying anything.


show off

 brag or want to be admired

 There's David showing off in his new sports car!


show up


 We expected David to come but he didn'tshow up.


shut up

 be silent, stop talking

 Oh shut up, you idiot!


sit down

 take a seat

 Please come in and sit down.


stand up

 rise from a sitting position

 The pupils stood up when the headmaster arrived.


stick up for


 It's important to stick up for one's principles.






take after

 resemble, in appearance or character

 Jamie really takes after his dad.


take care of

 look after

 I'll take care of your plants while you're away.


take off

 leave the ground

 The plane took off at 6 a.m.


take on

 hire or engage staff

 Business is good so the company is taking on extra staff.


take out

 remove; extract

 She took out a pen to note the address.


tell off

 reprimand/criticize severely

 The teacher told her off for not doing her homework.


think over


 I'll have to think over the proposal before I decide.


try on

 wear something to see if it suits or fits

 I'm not sure about the size.  Can I try it on?


turn down


 I couldn't turn down an offer like that!






use up

 finish a product (so that there's none left)

 The kids have used up all the toothpaste.






vouch for

 express confidence in, or guarantee something

  You can give the keys to Andy.  I canvouch for him.






watch out

 be careful

 Watch out! There's a car coming.


wear out

 1) become unusable
 2) become very tired

 1) Julie wore out her shoes visiting the city.
 2) At the end of the day Julie was worn out.


work out

 1) do physical exercise
 2) find a solution or calculate something

 1) I work out twice a week at the gym club.
 2) It's expensive but I haven't worked out the exact cost yet.


wipe off

 clean (board, table).

 The teacher asked Lee to wipe off the board.


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